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LED Definition and Concepts
LED(Light Emitting Diode) is a solid semi-conductor which can convert electricity into light. The heart of LED is a semi-conductor crystal. One side of the Crystal is stick to a frame connecting the two poles, one to negative pole, the other positive. The whole crystal is assembled fully in epoxy resin. The crystal consists of two parts, P-type semi-conductor and N-type semi-conductor. There is mainly electron in P-type, mainly holes in N-type. When connected together, there will be a P-N connector. The electron will go into holes in P-type, giving out energy in the form of light. This is the theory of LED shade lights. The color of the light is decided by wave length of light, which is decided by the materials to make the P-N connector.
LED doesn't use the Illumination theories of incandescent(tungsten filament) and fluorescent lighting (three basic color powder), it use electrical field to give out light. Its proved by figures that LED have advantages over the traditional light source, more life span, more efficiency, lower radiant and lower consumption. The spectrums of LED are all visible to the eyes. The efficiency is above 150lm/W (2010). Compared with incandescent (12lm/W, life span less than 2000hours), screw fluorescent lamp ( 60lm/W, life < 8000hours) and T5 fluorescent lighting (96lm/W, life is about 10000hours), the LED(Diameter 5mm) is over 150lm/W, life span can be up to 100000, some think even longer life span in future.
High Power LED means high light power, refers to LED of which power above 0.5W, such as 1W, 3W, 5W etc. The light intensity and lumens are higher than the small power ones, at the same time produce more heats. High power LED is applied individually with big heat cooling pad. Small power LED refers to LED of which power is arount 0.06W. The LED used in flash light is normally small power ones. The light will break up or not depending on the light angle. Angles are divided big angles and small angles. The light of small angle LED wont break up easily, the big angle one is in the contrary. Small power cap LED are used in the flash lights in the market, the effect are quite good. The only worry is that some not serious factories use the deteriorated LED in the flash lights, then the LED will wear out soon after using.
LED light intensity is decided by the LED light angle, smaller angle, brighter LED. Theres no super bright or not bright. Brightness of quality LED from different manufacturers are very similar, only the production technology is different among them, influencing the life span. The reason is that they all use the same LED IC made by the several big foreign factory. 5mm 180 degree angle white LED is hundreds MCD in brightness, but a 15 degree angle is more than ten thousand MCD, up to 20 thousand MCD. You can see times of tens brightness difference. If used in outdoor illumination, its better that high power LED are used to make brighter. Single high power LED is 1W,3W,5W, or higher W, even several ones to combined into a high power LED(can up to hundred W).
Color temperature haves nothing to do with Brightness. Brightness is effected by Lumens.
Several Concepts in below.
Lumens (lm)
As human eyes are sensitive to different electrical wave in different levels, we cant use radiating power to calculate light power. The unit lumens is based on the sensitive amount of light of human. The symbol for lumens is , unit is lm.
Intensity (cd)
Lumens is the total light power of a light source illuminating the around space, not evenly distributed from different light sources. The unit to measure intensity is cd, means light shines how much lumens on the certain ball cubic angle. 1cd=1lm/1sr ( sr cubit angle degree unit)
Brightness (cd/m2)
Brightness is the intensity of light radiated from the object, unit cd/m2, symbol L.
Color Temperature.
When the color of the light source have the same radiating color as black object in certain temperature, the temperature of the black object is called the color temperature of the light source, symbolized as K , the absolute temperature.
[Close]  [Print] Time:2011/4/6
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